Cairo is the capital of Egypt. It is the largest city in the Arab world and in Africa. To the southwest lies the city of Giza and the ancient necropolis of Memphis, with the Giza plateau and its monumental pyramids, such as the Great Pyramid. To the south lies the place where the ancient city of Memphis was built.
The city was founded in 116 BC, in what is now known as Old Cairo, when the Romans rebuilt an ancient Persian fortress by the Nile River. Before its foundation, Memphis or other cities were the capital of the Pharaonic Empire. The current name is due to the Fatimids, who baptized the city with the name of Al-Qahira. After various invasions such as the Mamluks, Ottomans, Napoleon and the British, Cairo became the Sovereign capital in 1952.