Is Sudan part of Africa or Asia?
South Sudan, which gained independence from Sudan on July 9, 2011, is the newest country in the world. Home to a wide range of mainly Nilotic ethnolinguistic groups that settled in the territory between the 15th and 19th centuries, South Sudanese society is heavily dependent on seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and seasonal migration.
The land encompassing present-day South Sudan was first conquered by Egypt and then jointly ruled by Egyptian-British colonial administrators in the late 19th century. Christian missionaries propagated the spread of English and Christianity, rather than Arabic and Islam, leading to significant cultural differences between the northern and southern parts of Sudan.
When Sudan gained independence in 1956, the southern region received assurances that it would participate fully in the political system. However, the Arab government in Khartoum reneged on its promises, resulting in two periods of civil war (1955-1972 and 1983-2005) in which as many as 2.5 million people died – mostly civilians – due largely to hunger and drought.
The Second Sudanese Civil War was one of the deadliest since World War II and left South Sudanese society devastated by humanitarian crises and economic deterioration. The peace talks resulted in a U.S.-backed comprehensive peace agreement, signed in January 2005, which granted the South a six-year period of autonomy followed by a referendum on final status. The result of this referendum, held in January 2011, was a 98% vote in favor of secession.
Which country does South Sudan belong to?
What countries touch South Sudan?
Why is South Sudan its own country?