Vermont. Vermont is the second smallest state in terms of population,with 609,000 residents and the sixth smallest in terms of geographical area.
Before the Europeans arrived, the Iroquois tribes of New York and the Algonquin tribes of New England fought for the possession of the territory of Vermont. The first European known to have explored the region was the French Samuel de Champlain, who in 1609 reached the lake which was later named after him. The first British settlement was Fort Dummer or Brattleboro (1724), to the South.
In the 1760s, a wave of settlers from Connecticut, Rhode Island and Massachusetts came to this territory. These settlers, aided by Benedict Arnold, took Fort Ticonderoga and drove British forces out of the Champlain Lake Region months before American Independence was declared. In 1777, the settlers adopted a separate Constitution and, after the war, formed an independent republic that remained until 1791. In 1791, Vermont was admitted to the Union.
Vermont experienced a demographic explosion between the 1790s and 1820s. The railway favoured the creation of cities serving as stations and facilitated some economic development, which was counteracted by the lack of industrial facilities and a tendency to make agriculture the basis of the state economy.
The quarries of marble and granite, the specialized industries in the industrial machinery and the growth of the tourism sector gained importance in the late NINETEENTH century and early TWENTIETH century, and represented a new and decisive boost to the economy of Vermont.
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