Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. It is a nation located in the north of the South American region, sharing borders to the West and south-west with Colombia, to the southeast with Brazil and to the East with Guyana, and also has maritime borders with the islands of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba (dependent on the Netherlands) on the facade of the Caribbean Sea and by The Atlantic with Trinidad and Tobago.
In addition, many islands scattered in the Caribbean Sea are under its dependence, the largest being Margarita Island.; far away from the mainland is the Bird Island, which is of strategic importance as it increases the country’s continental shelf.
During the pre-Columbian period, its territory was home to important tribal groups of Amerindians such as the Caribs, the Venezuelan Aborigines occupied the mountainous region, the llanos and Guayana. After being sighted by Christopher Columbus in 1498, a process of colonization and then a process of cultural interbreeding began shortly after. Venezuela was the first country in Latin America to proclaim its independence from the Spanish crown, a process that was consolidated with the Battle of Carabobo.
After a long chapter of civil conflict, the Republic found its way to modernizing the hand of notoriously authoritarian governments. In the middle of the 20th century the struggle for a democratic system began, which took hold after the overthrow of General Marcos Pérez Jiménez in 1958. Due to the oil boom, Venezuela experienced a period of high economic growth, which was interrupted by the energy crisis of the 1980’s, provoking a period of political and social instability alternating with financial ups and downs until in 1999, a former member of the Armed Forces of that country, named Hugo Chávez, reached the presidency initiating a process of socio-political and economic changes and reforms whose main examples are the 1999 Constituent Assembly as well as the transition to the so-called “socialism of the 21st century” begun in 2005, in what many recognize as the Bolivarian Revolution.