Bosnia and Herzegovina (commonly Bosnia and Herzegovina or simply Bosnia) consists of two entities. The first derives its name from the Bosna river, which crosses it from south to north for most of the territory. The second from the title of herceg (herzeg, from the German Herzog, duke): the name of the region, which literally means “the land of herzeg”, first appears in historical documents of 1448, when it was an autonomous duchy.
In the southeastern sector of Europe, in the heart of the western Balkan region, the territory includes Bosnia proper to the north, crossed by tributaries of the Sava and therefore part of the Danube basin, and to the South Herzegovina, on the Mediterranean side. Both regions are mainly mountainous and hilly, although the first, more water-rich, is largely covered with forests, while the second appears more arid.
The mountains are largely represented by the Dinaric Alps and karst plateaus; the reliefs do not reach excessive heights (even if in some cases they exceed 2,000 meters), but they have great extension and particularly harsh structure.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is depopulated and the economic and political crisis is becoming increasingly pressing: twenty-seven years after the end of the war the wounds remain open and the consequences are still to be discounted. According to the United Nations 2022 World Population Forecast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is the country with the sharpest population decline in the world. Every year, it loses more than 1.5% of its inhabitants. This trend, accompanied by a progressive aging, could lead to the halving of the population by 2070. To confirm this, data released by the country’s Employment Agency show that, in the first three months of 2022 alone, 5,048 people emigrated to work in Slovenia and Germany. The data are a mirror of a dramatic economic situation: the state is struggling with record inflation and high unemployment.
Are Bosnia and Herzegovina two different countries?
What nationality are Bosnians?
What countries touch Bosnia and Herzegovina?
Why does Bosnia have two names?