Australia (officially called Commonwealth of Australia) is a sovereign country of Oceania, whose form of government is the federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
It name has a double etymology. On the one hand it comes from the Latin australis, from the South: Legends of an unknown land of the South (terra australis incognita), dating from Roman times, were common in medieval geography, but uncertain. On the other hand, Pedro Fernandez de Quiros discovered an island in the archipelago of the New Hebrides (now Vanuatu) nominated for Australia of the Holy Spirit, mixing the words Austral, legend, and Austria, the dynasty then reigning in Spain, giving rise to the name with which in the future would know of the lands to the south of New Guinea.
The adjective Dutch Australische was used in the SEVENTEENTH century by the official Dutch in Batavia (current Jakarta), to refer to the south land discovered recently, in 1638.
The name “Australia” is due to the work A voyage to Terra Australis (A voyage to Terra Australis), 1814, the navigator Matthew Flinders, the first one that circumnavigated. Despite the title, which reflected the Admiral’s view of legitimate toponymy, Flinders used the word Australia, and the success of the notebook popularized the word. The governor of New South Wales Lachlan Macquarie later used it in the messages sent to England. In 1817 he recommended official adoption and in 1825 the British Admiralty rejected it.
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